Hypolipidemic effect of the crude ethanolic extract of thymus vulgaris in rats fed with lipid
David Christopher Bando, Hannah Nuhu Tubasen, Imbasire Nuhu, Emmanuel Odiba Ogu, Sylvia Ozioma Madukwe
This study was designed to evaluate the hypocholesterolemic effect of crude ethanolic extract of Thymus vulgaris in cholesterol fed rats. Acute toxicity test and preliminary quantitative screening were performed. Twenty-five (25) adult female Albino Wistar rats weighting 120-150g were used for this study. The animals were divided into five (5) groups (A-E) according to their body weights (w±20g). Group A and B, were set as the test groups and received 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg ethanolic extract of Thymus vulgaris (EETV) respectively. Group C received 20mg/kg Atorvastatin (positive control) and group D received 2000mg/kg cholesterols in coconut oil only (negative control) and group E received feeds and water (normal control). The administration was by oral route. Group E served as normal control. The administration of the EETV and cholesterol was for a period of twenty one (21) days. After an overnight fast all the animals (group A to E) were bled (5-8ml) through the retro-orbital vein into labeled plain tubes with the aid of heparinized capillary tubes for lipid profile. The Acute toxicity study revealed that the extract has an oral LD50 of >3000mg/kg. The phytochemical screening on the extract revealed the abundance of oils, saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins. There were no alkaloids, glycosides and high dose (300mg/kg/bw of EETV) lowered the levels of these cholesterol parameters in the rats significantly when compared with those of the negative control group. There was significant increase in the mean triglycerides (TG) levels of group C and D with mean TG levels of 1.18±0.09 mmol/L respectively when compared with the normal control group (0.22±0.02mmol/L; p<0.001). Furthermore, rats in groups A and group B had mean total cholesterol levels of 3.65±0.20mmol/L and 3.05±028mmol/L respectively and these were significantly lowered when compared with the negative control group with mean total cholesterol level of 5.15±0.11mmol/L (p<0.001). The atorvastatin group (positive control), had also significantly lowered mean total cholesterol level when compared with the negative control group. From the result of this study it could be concluded that Thymus vulgaris has a hypolipidemic effect in lipid fed rats.