Heavy metals and metalloids in soils and groundwater contamination in Fatehpur Sikri and Sikandra area of Agra district (India)
Rekha Suman, R B Singh
Assessment of heavy metal and metalloids pollution in soils and groundwater was carried out at the two key sites in Fatehpur sikri and Sikandra area of Agra district of UP. (India). The geological structure, hydrogeological conditions and contamination of soils and groundwater were studied at the key sites and contaminants migration in the vadoze zone and groundwater was simulated. The results of statistical analysis prove that at the key site in Agra was elevated concentrations of some chemical elements leading to soil pollution with heavy metals as: Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are related to technogenic and industrial activities. The modeling of ground- and surface water contamination showed that the area of sewage influence on groundwater is limited and that there is no hazard of river water contamination in the long term perspective. The fill ground and ancient alluvium at the key site in Agra district (India) the multi element (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Cr, As, oil products) contamination of soil, which is substantially variable both by depth and area. The modeling results permitted assessing the hazard of contaminated soils as the secondary long acting source of groundwater contamination. The geological structure and hydrogeological differences between the key sites determined the use of different models for the investigation of heavy metals migration in the aquifers.