Vol. 3, Issue 5 (2018)
Assessment of the quality of water from hand dug wells and boreholes at federal low: Cost housing estate Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria
Author(s): NS Gin, DS Buteh, S Daniel, H Akanang, A Abubakar
Abstract: This study assessed the water quality of some hand dug wells and boreholes within federal low-cost Housing Estate, Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Water samples collected from sixteen (16) different wells and four(4) different Boreholes at Strategic positions and determined to ascertain how safe the water is for direct human consumption without treatment. Twenty one (21) relevant parameters on the test of water quality were taken into consideration. The physical and Chemical parameters assessed include temperature, conductivity, total dissolved solid (T.D.S.). turbidity, pH, color, Total hardness, total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium potassium, sodium, copper, chromium, manganese, nitrate, sulphate, chloride and bicarbonate, while microbial parameters include total coliform and faecal coliform. The mean parameters and their ranges were :Temperature 26.6(26.2-27) oC, Conductivity 9970.6(108-3220)us/cm, T.D.S. 611.5(130-4040)mg/L, Turbidity 1.992(0-7.7) NTU, pH7.385 (6.8-7.80), Colour 14.8(0-67), total Hardness as CaCO3 26.575(95-480) mg/L, Total Alkalinity as CaCO3 105.75(10-320)mg/L, Ca2+,81.6 (32-134)mg/L, K + 13.495 (1.3-88)mg/L, Mg2+15.11 (2.44-32.96)mg/L, Na+65.3144(17.68-1738)mg/L, Cu2+0.268(0.01-1.42)mg/L, Cr3+5*10^-4(0-0.12)mg/L, NO32-121.68(18.48-190.08)mg/L SO42-36.9590-70)mg/L, Cl-160.793(44.94-392)mg/L, HCO3-129.015(12.2-390mg/L, Total coliform 56.95(0-596) cfu/100ml, Faecal coliforms 31.2 (0-245)cfu/100ml. The results revealed high variation between the WHO, NIS and NAFDAC standards for portable water and the obtained values. The implication is that water from most wells and bore holes in the study area is not suitable for direct human consumption. The closeness of wells and boreholes to refuse dumpsite was blamed for increased levels of concentration of pollutants. To avoid further pollution of ground water, the study therefore recommends that the site for wells and a boreholes should be at least 30m away from the source of contamination especially refuse dumpsite, the surrounding environment should be kept clean and tidy to avoid or reduce contaminations, disinfection of wells with chlorine and continuous monitoring to determine any Change in the level of pollution at source was emphasized.